FLINT’S FARM

Agent Contact:
Joyce L. Surbaugh, 304.660.8000

OVERVIEW

Flint’s Farm, one of Monroe County West Virginia’s authentic farms operating for over 100 years.  Quality farmland, fertile soil, abundant forest, sunshine and natural spring Water resources have sustained this farm for the ages.  Now available for another generation to enjoy.  Flint’s Farm includes 240 acres near Lindside West Virginia.

Featuring four originating springs including an old time water tree mint spring.  Lush watercress mint, mountain spring water and wide open spaces.  Fresh air, beautiful views and nature.  Forested mountain backdrop creates a landscape panorama.  Large hayfields and pastures with over 40% open land. Fenced and Cross fenced with electric.  Wonderful Monroe Country farm.

Views of  Peters Mountain, Jefferson National Forest, and the famous Appalachian Trail are visible to the southern elevations. Hikers have traveled the Appalachian Trail for many years seeking the adventure of a lifetime.  Harmony and natural beauty of the land make this a true blue ribbon property.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • 240 deeded acres consists of about 115 acres fields and 125 acres mature woodlands
  • Four originating springs
  • Recent survey is on file
  • Rich and diverse resident wildlife population unrivaled in the region
  • Minutes to historic Union and an easy drive to Roanoke’s jet airport
  • Lewisburg Airport, just a 45 minute drive, provides jet service to Chicago and Dulles
  • 55 minutes to the world renowned 4-star Greenbrier Resort
  • Patches of emerging forests and old fields intertwine with the farmland creating an exciting recreational property
  • Wildlife program enhances habitat, increases diversity, promotes health of the resident wildlife
  • Superior access by state maintained paved roads – FedEx, UPS and USPS delivery
  • Cell phone coverage is excellent to spotty in most areas with 4G service
  • Darkest of skies with little light pollution for star-planet gazing & astrophotography
  • Sedges, rushes, ferns, songbirds, frogs, turtles, & crawdads populate the creeks.
  • Fur bearing – deer, black bear, squirrel, rabbit, bobcat, raccoon, fox, chipmunk, opossum, bear, bobcat and coyote.
  • Winged wildlife – eagles, hawks, owls, geese, ravens, turkeys and Neotropical songbirds
  • Hay & Pasture grasses coupled with the forest produce life-giving Oxygen and are a sequester of carbon dioxide
  • Spectacular long-range views approaching 40 miles
  • Perfect for recreational activities including shooting sports, ATV riding, horseback riding, hiking, camping, hunting and nature viewing
  • Low taxes, low population density
  • Scenic, cultural, and historic values of the Flint Farm provide not only economic benefits, but also quality of life values.
  • Rich soil offers numerous garden spots and fields suitable for hay, corn, pumpkins, etc.
  • All mineral rights the seller owns will convey
  • Near Fountain Springs Golf Course
  • Long views of Peters Mountain high atop the Famous Appalachian Trail and the valley below
  • Exceptional butterfly population
  • Low taxes, low population density, little or no light pollution
  • Darkest of night skies
  • Perfect area for watersports, hunting, fishing, hiking, horseback riding
  • 30 minutes to Princeton with all big box stores, restaurants, historic district, hospital and more
  • 90 minutes to jet airport with regular flights to Chicago and Washington DC

LOCATION

Google Coordinates: 37.471347°(N), -80.628350°(W)
Address: 623 Dunkard Church Road, Lindside, WV 24951
Elevation Range: 2030 ft. to 2452 ft. +/-

AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES

The farm’s rich soil, intermittent stream, 4 seasons climate, and topography provide the necessary elements for a permaculture lifestyle. There are several acres of nice fields suitable for hay or row crops like corn, pumpkins etc.

There are a few fruit trees scattered about, some of which were part of the early homestead.  Crops of black walnuts are produced each year from the black walnut trees scattered about.

Honey bees would do well here and it may be possible to produce some maple syrup from the sugar and red maple trees growing on the property.

Currently operating farm with Angus livestock.  Hay production 80 Bales First Cutting,  40 second cutting and 40 third cutting.  Seller currently baling first cutting reports excellent grass volume.

Agricultural Possibilities

  • Wheat
  • Corn
  • Oats
  • Timothy
  • Designer Grasses
  • Vegetables
  • Pumpkins
  • Potato’s
  • Lavender
  • Tree Nursery
  • Herbs
  • Hemp
  • Microgreens
  • Mushrooms
  • Organic Farming
  • Poultry Farming
  • Flower Farming
  • Fruit Farming
  • Cattle Farming

Agriculture remains to be a crucial industry in the U.S. as the country is recognized to be one of the largest producers, consumers, and exporters of agricultural products in the world. With the human population expected to grow to 9.7 billion by 2050, there will be definitely more demand for farmers in the future.

Watercress

Watercress grows abundantly on Flint’s Farm at the Water Tree Spring. The old time water tree is exactly what it sounds like, spring water coming up from the earth, the roots of a tree and through the rock below to form a glade or a stream known as a spring branch.  This water tree is located near the lane of the property where the cress covers the branch like an emerald blanket.  Neighbors sometimes stop by and gather the cress. It is easily harvested as its roots grow in the water.  It can also be transplanted into a similar environment.  The Watercress is a popular green across the globe, and for good reason.  It is the healthiest leaf vegetable on the planet, with a delicious taste that stands out from many of the muted flavors other salad greens provide, and culinary versatility that is second to none.  In addition, the versatile scent is perfect for all applications because the bright aroma is energizing and invigorating, but the delicate soothing notes make this a  wonderful spa type aroma.  Somewhat a peppery mint pleasant scent.  A super salad pleaser with a lush crunch.

Watercress can be used for for coughs, vitamin C deficiency, tendency toward infection (poor immune system), and fluid retention.   The new tips of watercress leaves can be eaten raw or cooked.  Watercress is 95% water and has low contents of carbohydrates, protein, fat, and dietary fiber.  A 100 gram serving of raw watercress provides 11 calories, is particularly rich in Vitamin K (238% of the daily value,) and contains significant amounts of vitamin A, C, Riboflavin, B6, calcium and maganese.

THE HOMESTEAD

In today’s nonstop, fast-paced world, time is our most precious gift.  Finding that special place to enjoy your time… ..reading​ a book and sharing moments worth remembering with the ones who matter most.  A perfect place that feels just right.  Standing the tests of time is the homestead farmhouse.  Flints Farmhouse crafted with skill is now ready for your new build heritage home as repurposed antique wood, stone and fixtures to be used as you wish.  Typically these materials are sold as antique architectural salvage.  Sought after by craftsmen creating new construction custom design that incorporates antique wood materials.   The old Homeplace, once a remarkable home likely built from what the land provided over 100 years ago.  Oak flooring, poplar and natural cut stone foundation materials, chimney, Fireplace hearthstones and bricks all available to be reclaimed.  A treasure of history hearkening back to an earlier time when skilled stone masons and carpenters plied their trade across the countryside.

  • Circa 1918
  • Exterior walls are sided with milled ship-lapped  siding.
  • Some of the windows have the original hand-blown “wavy” glass.
  • Walls are accented with paneled wainscoting.
  • Bead board Walls on Second Floor side staircase.
  • The solid wood main stairway and bannister is in good condition.
  • Sidelights and Transom over Front Entrance
  • Raised panel doors in good condition with original hardware
  • Primitive very early American Doors .
  • Tongue and Groove wide plank flooring. Square Nails.
  • 100 plus year old flooring and wood throughout in top condition.
  • Wood quality surpassing modern flooring in most opinions.
  • Seven Primitive Fireplace mantles
  • Vintage Stone, bricks, Fireplace Stone Facing
  • Vintage Stone Fireplace Hearths and Firebox’s.
  • Cut Stone Foundation blocks
  • Cut Stone Sidewalk patio rock
  • Large amount of high grade antique wood, doors, trim, fixtures and hardware for repurposing.
  • Stair Treads, pickets and Handrail in good condition
  • Water to the home is supplied by one of the four springs

WILDLIFE

The mixture of mature Red Oak trees, cedars, emerging forest, farm fields, old fruit trees, coupled with the abundant water supply from the spring fed streams, create the perfect wildlife habitat. The “edge effect” created between, branch, field, cedar, and forest is the textbook habitat for the resident wildlife. The edges create long wildlife food plots. The hardwood trees produce tons of acorns, hickory nuts, beech nuts and soft mast. White tail deer, black bear, red/gray fox, bobcat, wild turkey, squirrel, raccoon, fox and many species of songbirds, owls and raptors make up the resident wildlife population. It is hard to find a property that has a better mix of wildlife as there has been little hunting pressure for many years.

The branch is a major contributor to the local ecosystem richness and diversity for both plants and animals. The creek, spring and its surrounding aquatic plant life create a water supported community with a wide variety of wildlife. Some creek margin is fringed by wetland, this wetland supports the aquatic food web, provide shelter for wildlife, and stabilize the banks. The plant life associated with the wetland includes, watercress, rushes, sedges, cattails, duckweed, bee balm and algae.

There are many animals that live in the water and around the edges of the creek, springs and pond including raccoons, opossums, turtles, salamanders, newts, crayfish, muskrat, bull frogs, and redwing blackbirds. Of course there is the insect and microscopic world including butterflies, dragonflies, water skaters, water beetles, damselflies, tadpoles and various insect larvae.

BUTTERFLIES

The farm is an exceptional habitat for all butterflies, especially the Monarch. The monarch is highly dependent on the milkweed plant and will always return to areas rich in milkweed to lay their eggs upon the plant. The milkweed they feed on as a caterpillar is actually a poisonous toxin and is stored in their bodies. This is what makes the monarch butterfly taste so terrible to predators.

Of course, other butterflies visit the Farm, including the eastern tiger and spicebush swallowtails, silver-spotted skipper, and a variety of sulphurs and whites.

One other interesting insect to visit the property is the Black Saddlebag Dragonfly, a regular guest of the small farm ponds with all the frogs, salamanders, crawdads and turtles.

RECREATION AT FLINT’S FARM

Nature viewing is first in line of recreational activities. Attentive wildlife management has been geared not to just game animals. Equal consideration has been extended to increasing the numbers and diversity of species including neo-tropical songbirds, butterflies, turtles, frogs, rabbits, chipmunks, dragonflies, owls, hawks.

Stargazing-Planet Observation
Complete darkness can be still be found on the majority of the property, thereby affording the opportunity to view the night sky in all its brilliant wonder. Astrophotography would be in step with the unobstructed views of 160 degrees of horizon.

Shooting-sports devotees find all the land and privacy needed to enjoy:

  • Paintball-Airsoft-Laser tag-Archery tag
  • Shotgun sport shooting including Skeet, Trap, and Sporting Clays
  • Rifle & Handgun shooting: bullseye, silhouette, western, bench rest, long-range, fast draw
  • Archery and Crossbow competition shooting
  • Plain ole’ plinking with an old 22 single shot rifle and a few tin cans

Mountain Biking, Horseback Riding and Hiking
Flints Farm has several opportunities that are perfect for experiencing the property from horseback, mountain bike, ATV, or hiking. Trail users can start out down along the creek and wind upwards through the pine and hardwood forest and agricultural fields, ending at the highest ridge.

THE FOREST AND WILDLIFE

Due to the well balanced mixture, the forest supports many different species of wildlife. White-tail deer, wild turkey, black bear, grey and fox squirrels, rabbits, chipmunks, raccoons, opossums, turtles and bobcats are some of the more abundant species living in the forest.

Because the forest has several old growth trees, several species of songbirds make their nest in the cavities and holes found only in older mature timber. Red tail hawks, ravens, jays and buzzards live in harmony with the largest woodpecker, the Pileated. The Pileated woodpecker can be 17” tall and sports a bright red cap and looks like it is wearing a tuxedo.

Mountain Laurel, dogwood, sassafras, serviceberry, spicebush, ironwood and wild honeysuckle can be found growing in the shade of the hollow. There is a terrific assortment of teaberry, mayapple, vines, mosses, ferns, lichens, toadstools and conks scattered amongst the forest floor.

FOREST FORAGING

The most common crops are medicinal herbs and mushrooms. Other crops that can be produced include shade-loving native ornamentals, moss, fruit, nuts, grape vines, berries, sassafras, birch bark, Cress, firewood, landscape trees, rocks and even soil. Other food crops, and decorative materials for crafts. These crops are often referred to as special forest products.

Here are some specific examples of crops in each category that are currently being cultivated:

  • Medicinal herbs: Ginseng, goldenseal, black cohosh, bloodroot, passionflower, and mayapple
  • Mushrooms: Shiitake , Morel and oyster mushrooms
  • Native ornamentals: Rhododendrons and dogwood
  • Moss: Log or sheet moss
  • Fruit: Pawpaws, currants, elderberries, and lowbush blueberries
  • Nuts: Black walnuts, hazelnuts, hickory nuts, and beechnuts
  • Other food crops: Ramps (wild leeks), maple syrup, and honey
  • Plants used for decorative purposes, dyes, and crafts: Galax, princess pine, white oak, pussy willow branches in the spring, holly, bittersweet, and bloodroot and ground pine (Lycopodium)

SELF-SUSTAINING LIFE OFF THE GRID

Just like 200 years ago, when the first mountaineers settled the area, the property would be self-sustaining in times of necessity – even without electricity.

  • Fresh water for drinking and cooking would come from springs and drilled water wells (hand drawing water from the wells using a cylinder well bucket).
  • The ponds and forest would provide fresh food (fish, deer, and turkey).
  • The agricultural land’s flat to rolling topography would be used to raise livestock of all kinds (chickens, pigs, cows, sheep, goats, rabbits etc.) and could be farmed with horse drawn equipment. The land would support vegetable gardens, berry patches, fruit orchards, and row crops of corn, oats and barley.
  • Beehives would provide honey and beeswax for candles.
  • The forest would provide firewood for heating and cooking, lumber for building, basket splints, maple syrup and pounds of nuts (walnuts, beechnuts and hickory nuts).

APPALACHIAN TRAIL – MONROE COUNTY WEST VIRGINIA

Say “Appalachian Trail in West Virginia,”  and most people think of the Eastern Panhandle. But a portion of the trail weaves in and out of West Virginia for about 20 miles along the Virginia border in Monroe County.

The AT here is much higher than the Harper’s Ferry portion, with a maximum elevation of 4,000 feet and terrain ranked easy to challenging.  The trail can be accessed by hiking up the Groundhog Trail from the Sugar Camp Farm.

  • Eat: Fuel up for your trek at one of several restaurants in Union and Peterstown. Dining options range from sandwiches and salads at The Deli on Main to spicy bratwursts at KC’s Dawg and Burger Haus.
  • Stay: Nearby lodging includes historic bed and breakfasts like the Old Victorian Inn in Alderson and luxury cabins at the Four Fillies Lodge. Tent and RV camping is available at Moncove Lake State Park.
  • Play: Pair your AT hike with a driving tour of Monroe County. The rural countryside is dotted with historic structures, including several grist mills and covered bridges, while rustic barns showcase more than 50 quilt blocks along the Rural Heritage Quilt TrailIf you’re a bird watcher, you might want to plan an excursion to Hanging Rock Raptor ObservatoryThe old fire tower high atop Peters Mountain is ideal for spotting migrating birds of prey including bald eagles and several species of hawks and falcons. The observatory can be reached via a 1-mile uphill hike from the parking area for the Allegheny Trail.

The Appalachian National Scenic Trail, generally known as the Appalachian Trail or simply the A.T., is a marked hiking trail in the Eastern United States extending between Springer Mountain in Georgia and Mount Katahdin in Maine. The trail is about 2,200 miles (3,500 km) long, though the exact length changes over time as parts are rerouted or modified. The Appalachian Trail Conservancy describes the Appalachian Trail as the longest hiking-only trail in the world. More than 2 million people are said to take a hike on part of the trail at least once each year.

The idea of the Appalachian Trail came about in 1921. The trail itself was completed in 1937 after more than a decade of work, although improvements and changes continue. It is maintained by 31 trail clubs and multiple partnerships, and managed by the National Park ServiceUnited States Forest Service, and the nonprofit Appalachian Trail Conservancy.  Most of the trail is in forest or wild lands, although some portions traverse towns, roads and farms. It passes through 14 states: GeorgiaNorth CarolinaTennesseeVirginiaWest VirginiaMarylandPennsylvaniaNew JerseyNew YorkConnecticutMassachusettsVermontNew Hampshire, and Maine.

MINERAL RESOURCES

West Virginia is one of the states in the US that has two ownership titles, those being SURFACE RIGHTS and MINERAL RIGHTS. A title search for mineral rights ownership has not been conducted. All rights the owner has will convey with the property. A mineral title search could be conducted by a title attorney at the same time when the surface title search is being conducted.

BOUNDARIES AND SURVEY

A boundary survey was performed in 2017, and a plat was prepared from that survey.  The metes and bounds description from the survey are contained in the owners’ deed. The property is being sold by the boundary and not by the acre.

ACCESS/FRONTAGE

A portion of Dunkard Church Road Rt. 219/15 travels through the northwestern section of the property. The farm road intersects with Dunkard Church Road within that area, providing access to the public road system.

ZONING

There is currently no county zoning in Monroe County. All prospective purchasers are encouraged to contact the Monroe County Health Department for answers regarding installation of septic systems and water wells. Further information on county zoning may be answered by contacting the Monroe County Commission.

DEED and TAX INFORMATION

Deed Information: DB 289 Pg. 501
Monroe County, West Virginia
Acreage: 240.07 acres +/-

Real Estate Tax ID/Acreage/Taxes:
Monroe County (32), West Virginia
Springfield District (5)
Tax Map 36 Parcel 11; Class 2

2020 Real Estate Taxes: $665.84

PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Monroe County School District

Public Elementary School:
Mountain View Elementary School

Public Middle School:
Mountain View Middle School

Public High School:
James Monroe High School

SURROUNDING AREA

MONROE COUNTY

Flints Farm is located near the charming village of Union, which is the Monroe County seat, and is just a 20-minute drive. Banking, healthcare facilities, drugstore, grocery, hardware, auto parts and farm supply are readily available in nearby Union and Peterstown. There are no fast food restaurants but there are the local restaurants that are great places to meet friends and enjoy a great home cooked meal.  Lindside and the Lindside Volunteer Fire Department is a 10-minute drive.  The surrounding area offers a small town atmosphere providing an extraordinary, friendly and enriching lifestyle.

Some of the friendliest people in West Virginia can be found in Monroe County.  Monroe County has a population of about 13,000 residents and does not have a stoplight and has more cattle and sheep than people. Monroe County is a special area with interesting folks, both “born and raised” and newer members from many different states. People from all walks of life reside in harmony in this lovely pastoral setting. Located south of Union, near Lindside, and west of Blacksburg, VA, the Flint Farm offers those from urban areas the opportunity for a rural retreat well within a half days drive to Washington, DC and Charlotte, NC.

Shortly after Monroe County was created, James Alexander offered 25 acres of land, including a lot for a courthouse which in time became the town of Union. On January 6, 1800, the Virginia Assembly passed an act creating the town of Union. The Monroe County Historical Society preserves several historic structures in the town, including the Caperton Law Office, Owen Neel House, Clark-Wisemen House, Ames Clair Hall, and the Old Baptist Church. The Union Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.

The Town of Peterstown is 20 minutes from the farm. Banking, healthcare facilities, drugstore, grocery, hardware, auto parts and farm supply are readily available in Peterstown. The town is on the border with the state of Virginia and Virginia Tech is less than an hour from Peterstown.

Peterstown was chartered in 1803 by the Virginia General Assembly, incorporated in 1892 by the Circuit Court. Peterstown was named for Christian Peters, Revolutionary war soldier, who settled nearby and founded the town shortly after the Revolutionary War. The town is the site of the 1928 discovery of the 34.48 carat (6.896 g) Jones Diamond by Grover C. Jones and his son, William “Punch” Jones.

FOUNTAIN SPRINGS GOLF COURSE

Fountain Springs Golf Course, located along U. S. Route 219, at 93 Fountain Springs Dr, Peterstown, is an 18 hole Public course. From the back tees, the course plays over 6278 yards with a slope of 120 and rating of 70.4. Fountain Springs was designed by Russell Breeden and opened in 1998

SALT SULPHUR SPRINGS

Salt Sulphur Springs is located just a few miles north of the property and is a popular wedding venue and is the scene of select community advents.

The area is well known for the healing waters of the numerous “Sulphur Springs”. During the 1800’s and early 1900’s, several “Sulphur Springs Resorts” flourished in the area. Most notably and still in existence are White Sulphur Springs, Warm Springs and, Hot Springs. Others included, Sweet Springs, Blue Sulphur Springs, Red Sulphur Springs, Green Sulphur Springs, Pence Springs and, Sweet Chalybeate Springs.

During the height of wealthy families’ summer treks to the Virginia springs resorts—from roughly 1800 until the Civil War—one popular circuit encompassed “the fountains most strongly impregnated with minerals, heat, fashion, and fame,” according to one chronicler. For those arriving from eastern Virginia and points northeast, the circuit started at Warm Springs northeast of Lewisburg, in the Allegheny Mountains. From there, it ran south and west to the Hot, the White Sulphur, the Sweet, the Salt Sulphur, and the Red Sulphur, then back in the opposite direction.

The “Old Salt” was famed for its three springs: sweet, salt sulphur, and iodine, curative especially for “chronic diseases of the brain” such as headaches.

The main hotel building dates to about 1820. Salt Sulphur Springs Historic District holds one of the largest groupings of pre-Civil War native stone buildings in West Virginia

GREENBRIER COUNTY

Historic Lewisburg is located just 1 hour to the North with all the charm of a small town and all the amenities of a larger city. Designated the “Coolest Small Town in America” in 2011, fine dining, arts and entertainment flourish in the Lewisburg area while “big box” stores like Walmart and Lowes are also available along with the Greenbrier Valley Medical Center and other medical services.

Lewisburg is also home to Carnegie Hall, Greenbrier Valley Theatre, the WV School of Osteopathic Medicine, a community college, and is the county seat for Greenbrier County. The Greenbrier Valley Airport with daily flights to Atlanta and Washington, DC is located just outside of Lewisburg.

The world famous Greenbrier Resort is 1 hour drive and Snowshoe Ski Resort is within a 2 hour drive as well.

Within an hour to two hour drive are located some of the finest recreational facilities in West Virginia. Snowshoe Ski Resort, whitewater rafting / fishing on the Greenbrier, New River and Gauley River, 2000 acre Bluestone Lake, 919,000 acre Monongahela National Forest and the 80,000 acre New River National Gorge National Park. Five other area state parks and state forests offer unlimited hiking, horseback riding, ATV riding and rock climbing opportunities.

ARCHEOLOGY

The long stretches of bottomland are well known to be rich in Native American artifacts.

Native American Indians who lived in the River Valleys of the Ohio, Kanawha, Greenbrier and Roanoke, as well as northern Georgia, upper SC and Tennessee where part of the Archaic Period culture. This culture lasted from about 10,000 to 3,000 BP (before present day).

Native American artifact collectors search for, are, arrowheads, spear points, tomahawks, tools and toys (marbles). Most of the artifacts would be from the Archaic period and can be readily found on any flat areas that would be one foot higher than the creek’s bank.

The American Native Indians who lived in what is now West Virginia led a Stone Age lifestyle – they only had stone tools and weapons, had never seen a horse and had no knowledge of the wheel.

There are many famous Native American tribes who played a part in the history of the state and whose tribal territories and homelands are located in West Virginia. The names of the tribes included the Cherokee, Iroquois, Manahoac, Meherrin, Monacan, Nottaway, Occaneechi, Saponi and Shawnee.

Other famous Tribes of Eastern Woodlands: Miami, Lenape, Iroquois, Massachusett, Powhatan, Abenaki, Shawnee and Pequot, Fox, Sauk, Wampanoag, Delaware, Huron (Wyandot), Mohawk, Mohican and Menominee

The way of life and history of West Virginia Indians was dictated by the natural raw materials available to them.

  • Way of Life (Lifestyle): Hunter-gatherers, farmers, fishers, trappers
  • Types of housing, homes or shelters: Wigwams (aka Birchbark houses)
  • Crops: Corn (maize), pumpkin, squash, beans and tobacco
  • Trees: Poplars, birches, elms, maples, oaks, pines, fir trees and spruce trees.
  • Transport: Birchbark canoes
  • Clothing: Little clothing in the summer, animal skins (Buckskin) in winter
  • Languages: Iroquoian and Algonquian

HISTORY TIMELINE OF NATIVE AMERICANS IN WEST VIRGINIA

10,000 BC: Paleo-Indian Era (Stone Age culture) the earliest human inhabitants of America who lived in caves and were Nomadic hunters of large game including the Great Mammoth and giant bison.

7000 BC: Archaic Period in which people built basic shelters and made stone weapons and stone tools

1000 AD: Woodland Period – homes were established along rivers and trade exchange systems and burial systems were established

1500’s AD: First contact with Europeans – The history and the way of life of West Virginia Indians was profoundly affected by newcomers to the area. The indigenous people had occupied the land thousands of years before the first European explorers arrived. The Europeans brought with them new ideas, customs, religions, weapons, transport (the horse and the wheel), livestock (cattle and sheep) and disease which profoundly affected the history of the Native Indians.

REGIONAL INFORMATION