PRESTON FARM
263 Acres

Agent Contact:
Richard Grist, 3046457674

The 263-acre Preston Farm is one of Monroe County’s most beautiful and well-known farms.

OVERVIEW

The 263-acre Preston Farm is one of Monroe County’s most beautiful and well-known farms. This exceptional farm, just minutes to Union, has deep, sweet soils that produce excellent cool season grasses or row crops.

Primary economic outputs include hay production and beef production. However, wildlife values are also a major economic consideration for the farm.  Environmental values are extensive and provide many essential ecosystem services, such as clean water, wildlife, and recreation opportunities.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • One of Monroe County’s most beautiful and well-known farms
  • 263 acre +/- farm consists of about 200 acres pasture and hayfields and some 63 acres mature woodlands
  • Commercially valuable timber ready for harvest and immediate cash flow
  • All mineral rights will convey
  • 15,000 feet +/- of high tensile perimeter fencing and cross fencing in place – professionally installed
  • Aggressive grassland management increases carrying capacity and extends the grazing season
  • Rotational grazing supports about 75 cow/calf pairs or about 125 steers
  • Rich and diverse resident wildlife population unrivaled in the region
  • Minutes to historic Union and an easy drive to Roanoke’s jet airport
  • Lewisburg Airport, just a 30 minute drive, provides jet service to Chicago and Dulles
  • 35 minutes to the world renowned 4-star Greenbrier Resort
  • Dynamic forest with some old growth trees estimated to be 200-300 years old.
  • Patches of emerging forests intertwine with the farmland creating an exciting recreational property
  • Permanent interior farm roads and dedicated forest trails wind through the property providing superior access to nearly every area
  • Wildlife program enhances habitat, increases diversity, promotes health of the resident wildlife
  • A rewarding permaculture lifestyle can be easily developed
  • Nearby Salt Sulphur Springs is famous for its three springs: sweet spring, salt sulphur spring, and iodine spring
  • Surrounded by large farms and timber tracts in a nice rural neighborhood
  • Superior access by state maintained paved roads – FedEx, UPS and USPS delivery
  • Cell phone coverage is excellent with 5G service
  • Darkest of skies with little light pollution for star-planet gazing & astrophotography
  • Sedges, rushes, ferns, songbirds, frogs, turtles, & crawdads populate the ponds and wetlands
  • Just 5 minutes to Union, the Monroe County Seat
  • Timber species include beautiful oaks, black walnut, poplar, sycamore, maple and hickories
  • Fur bearing – deer, black bear, squirrel, rabbit, bobcat, raccoon, fox, chipmunk, opossum
  • Winged wildlife – eagles, hawks, owls, ravens, turkeys and Neotropical songbirds
  • Hay & Pasture grasses coupled with the forest produce tons of life-giving Oxygen and sequester tons of  carbon dioxide
  • Perfect for recreational activities including shooting sports, ATV riding, horseback riding, hiking, camping, hunting and nature viewing
  • Low taxes, low population density Near Fountain Springs Golf Course
  • Long views of Peters Mountain and the valley below
  • Exceptional butterfly population

AGRICULTURAL RESOURCES

  • The property has been in continuous agricultural use for well over 150 years.
  • There is a nice barn and an old hand-cut stone spring house
  • The farm’s perimeter is fenced with professionally installed high tensile – electric fencing. Cross fencing has been installed to facilitate the rotational grazing program.
  • The farm’s rich soil, intermittent streams, 4 seasons climate, and varied topography provide the necessary elements for a permaculture lifestyle.
  • There are about 25 acres of gently laying hayfields and about 170 acres in pasture. The hayfields would be also be suitable for row crops like corn, pumpkins etc.
  • Fresh – clean water for livestock and wildlife is supplied by 3 professionally constructed farm ponds that are fenced out. There are also multiple concrete auto-waterer’s.
  • Brushy areas are being converted to pasture in an ongoing pasture improvement program.
  • There are a few fruit trees scattered about, some of which were part of the early homestead.  Crops of black walnuts are produced each year from the abundant black walnut trees on the farm..
  • Honey bees would do well here and it may be possible to produce some maple syrup from the sugar and red maple trees growing on the property.

LOCATION

Google Coordinates: 37.577624°(N), -80.551213°(W)
Address: Seneca Trail US 219, Union, WV 24983; No 911 address is assigned to property without structures.
Elevation Range: 1960 ft. to 2163 ft. +/-

MINERAL RESOURCES

All rights the owner has by title will convey with the property. A title search for mineral rights ownership has not been conducted. A mineral title search could be conducted by a title attorney at the same time when the surface title search is being conducted.

BOUNDARIES AND SURVEY

Most of the boundaries are evidenced by fencing.  A large portion of the eastern boundary runs along US 219.  The property is being sold by the boundary and not by the acre.

UTILITIES

Water: A well could be drilled. Public water may be available roadside – check with the local PSD
Sewer: A private septic system could be installed
Electricity: onsite
Telephone: onsite
Internet:  Maybe possible through phone cable and satellite
Cell coverage is excellent with 5G service

ACCESS/FRONTAGE

The property has frontage on U.S. Route 219. Several permanent interior farm roads and dedicated timber trails provide excellent access to nearly every area of the farm.

ZONING

There is currently no county zoning in Monroe County. All prospective purchasers are encouraged to contact the Monroe County Health Department for answers regarding installation of septic systems and water wells. Further information on county zoning may be answered by contacting the Monroe County Commission.

PROPERTY TYPE/USE SUMMARY

The property is an active farm producing hay and maintains a cow-calf cattle operation. The property is mostly pasture and hayfields with some intermingling of wooded and brushy. Conversion of brush and timber areas into pasture is ongoing.  There is a mature forest containing about 63 acres.

(This summary is an estimation of current property use as determined from aerial photography.  It is made subject to the estimation of property boundaries and any errors in the interpretation of land use type from the aerial photography utilized.)

DEED and TAX INFORMATION

Deed Information: A portion of these deeds: DB 262 Pg. 104, DB 271 Pg. 704, DB 283 Pg. 212
Monroe County, West Virginia
Acreage: 263 +/- to be conveyed

Real Estate Tax ID/Acreage/Taxes:
Monroe County (32), West Virginia
Union District (7)
Tax Map 15 Parcels 26, 27, and 28; Class 2

2020 Real Estate Taxes: $1828.16 for all three whole tax parcels before removing reservation area.

CARBON SEQUESTRATION & CREATING OXYGEN

The Preston Farm is capable of offsetting the Carbon Footprint of the owners as well as many, many more citizens of the World.  It’s not a well-known fact that a sodded farm field produces oxygen for our environment at a far greater rate than the same area of trees. One acre of trees with full canopy coverage produces enough oxygen for between 8 and 18 people. The same acre in just grass cover produces enough for 70 people!

The farm is a tremendous producer of Oxygen and a Carbon Sequesterer. Carbon Sequestration is the act of processing carbon dioxide through sinks and stores and releasing them into the atmosphere as oxygen. With 263 +/- acres, the vigorously growing forest, emerging forest, and agricultural grasses, the farm is sequestering approximately some 3,000 tons of Carbon Dioxide each per year.

The farm could be generating about 3,000 tons of Oxygen a year. Pretty cool!!

FOREST FARMING

The most common crops are medicinal herbs and mushrooms. Other crops that can be produced include shade-loving native ornamentals, moss, fruit, nuts, other food crops, and decorative materials for crafts. These crops are often referred to as special forest products.

Here are some specific examples of crops in each category that are currently being cultivated:

  • Medicinal herbs: Ginseng, goldenseal, black cohosh, bloodroot, passionflower, and mayapple
  • Mushrooms: Shiitake and oyster mushrooms
  • Native ornamentals: Rhododendrons and dogwood
  • Moss: Log or sheet moss
  • Fruit: Pawpaws, currants, elderberries, and lowbush blueberries
  • Nuts: Black walnuts, hazelnuts, hickory nuts, and beechnuts
  • Other food crops: Ramps (wild leeks), maple syrup, and honey
  • Plants used for decorative purposes, dyes, and crafts: Galax, princess pine, white oak, pussy willow branches in the spring, holly, bittersweet, and bloodroot and ground pine (Lycopodium)

WILDLIFE

The mixture of some mature trees, cedars, emerging forest, farm fields, old fruit trees, coupled with the abundant water supply, create the perfect wildlife habitat. The “edge effect” created between, branches, fields and forest, is the textbook habitat for the resident wildlife. The edges create long wildlife food plots. The hardwood trees produce tons of acorns, loads of black walnuts, hickory nuts, beech nuts and soft mast. White tail deer, black bear, red/gray fox, bobcat, wild turkey, squirrel, raccoon, fox and many species of songbirds, owls and raptors make up the resident wildlife population. It is hard to find a property that has a better mix of wildlife as there has been little hunting pressure for many years.

The branch is a major contributor to the local ecosystem richness and diversity for both plants and animals. The creek and farm ponds and its surrounding aquatic plant life create a water supported community with a wide variety of wildlife. Some of creek and ponds margin is fringed by wetlands, and these wetlands support the aquatic food web, provide shelter for wildlife, and stabilize the banks. The plant life associated with the wetland includes, watercress, rushes, sedges, cattails, duckweed, bee balm and algae.

There are many animals that live in the water and around the edges of the creek, springs and ponds including raccoons, opossums, turtles, salamanders, newts, crayfish, muskrat, bull frogs, and redwing blackbirds. Of course, there is the insect and microscopic world including butterflies, dragonflies, water skaters, water beetles, damselflies, tadpoles and various insect larvae.

RECREATION AT THE PRESTON FARM

The Preston Farm offers unparalleled recreational opportunities.  Numerous soft recreational activities are anchored by the proximity to the Greenbrier River, New River, and Bluestone Lake.

Nature viewing is first in line of recreational activities. Attentive wildlife management has been geared not to just game animals. Equal consideration has been extended to increasing the numbers and diversity of species including neo-tropical songbirds, butterflies, turtles, frogs, rabbits, chipmunks, dragonflies, owls and hawks.

Stargazing-Planet Observation and Star-Walking
Almost complete darkness can be still be found on areas of the property, thereby affording the opportunity to view the night sky in all its brilliant wonder.

Water-sports enthusiasts will find the nearby New River ideal for swimming, canoeing, fishing, kayaking, tubing, snorkeling, paddle boarding and windsurfing.

Shooting-sports devotees find all the land and privacy needed to enjoy:

  • Paintball-Airsoft-Laser Tag-Archery tag
  • Shotgun sport shooting including Skeet, Trap, Double Trap and Sporting Clays
  • Rifle & Handgun shooting: bullseye, silhouette, western, bench rest, long-range, fast draw
  • Archery and Crossbow competition shooting
  • Plain ole’ plinking: Grandpa’s old 22 single shot rifle and a few tin cans make a fun day

All Terrain Motorsports
Preston Farm has internal roads and several forest trails that are perfect for experiencing the property from an ATV or UTV. These exciting machines handle the wide variety of the forest’s terrain.

Rock Crawling & Rock Bouncing
Several areas of the property afford an topographic opportunity for the Extreme Off Road adventurist to enjoy the increasingly popular Motorsport of Rock Crawling and Rock Bouncing.

Dirt bikes can also be a lot of fun and they come in all sizes and horsepower to fit anyone who enjoys being on two wheels.

Mountain Biking, Horseback Riding and Hiking
The gently laying land may be used for conventional and mountain biking, hiking or horseback riding.

Hunting is a first-class experience.  White tail deer, black bear, red/gray fox, bobcat, wild turkey, grouse, duck, squirrel, raccoon, fox and rabbit make up the resident wildlife population. It is hard to find a property that has a better mix of wildlife.

FOREST/TIMBER RESOURCES

The abundant timber resource, consisting of about about 70 acres, is well positioned for current timber income as well as value appreciation over the coming decades. With an attractive species mix, adequate stocking levels, and favorable diameter class distribution, the timber amenity represents a strong component of value to the investor.

The Preston Farm’s forest resource is composed of quality Appalachian hardwoods. This timber resource can provide a great deal of flexibility to the next ownership in terms of potential harvest revenue and could be managed to provide cash flow opportunities to offset holding cost and long-term asset appreciation. Capital Timber Value of the timber and pulpwood has not been determined at this time but is considered substantial.

The forest’s predominately well-drained upland terrain has led to a resource dominated by hardwood species. Overall, the species composition is highly desirable and favors Appalachian hardwood types, consisting primarily of Black Walnut, Sugar Maple, Poplar/Basswood, Red Oak Group, White Oak/Chestnut Oak, Soft Maple, Hickory, and a host of associated species (ash, cedar, birch, sourwood, black gum, beech).

Forest-wide, most stands are fully stocked, providing the next ownership with a great deal of flexibility in shaping their own silvicultural legacy. Stem quality forest-wide can be considered excellent.

The property’s timber component has been well managed over the years and consists of stands of differing age classes. The predominant timber stand contains 60-140-year-old stems ranging in size of 10”-40” dbh.

Diameters are well represented across the commercial spectrum with a notable mature size class, as well as abundant pole size timber and growing stock.

Several “Heritage Trees” are scattered throughout the forest and old field edges. These ancient trees, some 200-300 years old, have withstood the test of time, weathering ice, wind, lightning strikes and fire.

The forest is healthy and there are no signs of pest infestations of Gypsy Moth. The Emerald Ash Borer, which has inundated the entire Northeast US, is present and the Ash component will significantly decline over the next decade. The Eastern Hemlock species is under siege by the Hemlock Wooly Adelgid and the hemlock will significantly decline over the coming decade. There have been no forest fires in recent memory.

The forest floor is home to several types of mushrooms, medicinal plants, wild ginseng, ferns and cool green mosses.

There are several fruit trees scattered about, some of which were part of the early homestead. Crops of black walnuts and hickory nuts are produced each year from the abundant black walnut and hickory trees scattered about.

Honeybees would do well here, and it would be possible to produce maple syrup from the sugar and red maple trees growing on the property.

SURROUNDING AREA

MONROE COUNTY

The Preston Farm is located near the charming village of Union, which is the Monroe County seat, and is just a 5-minute drive. Banking, healthcare facilities, drugstore, grocery, hardware, auto parts and farm supply are readily available in nearby Union and Peterstown. There are no fast food restaurants but there are the local restaurants that are great places to meet friends and enjoy a great home cooked meal.

Some of the friendliest people in West Virginia can be found in Monroe County. Monroe County has a population of about 13,000 residents and does not have a stoplight and has more cattle and sheep than people. Monroe County is a special area with interesting folks, both “born and raised” and newer members from many different states. People from all walks of life reside in harmony in this lovely pastoral setting. Located south of Union, near Rock Camp, and west of Blacksburg, VA, the parcel offers those from urban areas the opportunity for a rural retreat well within a half days drive to Washington, DC and Charlotte, NC.

Shortly after Monroe County was created, James Alexander offered 25 acres of land, including a lot for a courthouse which in time became the town of Union. On January 6, 1800, the Virginia Assembly passed an act creating the town of Union. The Monroe County Historical Society preserves several historic structures in the town, including the Caperton Law Office, Owen Neel House, Clark-Wisemen House, Ames Clair Hall, and the Old Baptist Church. The Union Historic District was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1990.

The Town of Peterstown is 30 minutes from the farm. Banking, healthcare facilities, drugstore, grocery, hardware, auto parts and farm supply are readily available in Peterstown. The town is on the border with Virginia and Virginia Tech is less than an hour from Peterstown.

Peterstown was chartered in 1803 by the Virginia General Assembly, incorporated in 1892 by the Circuit Court. Peterstown was named for Christian Peters, Revolutionary war soldier, who settled nearby and founded the town shortly after the Revolutionary War. The town is the site of the 1928 discovery of the 34.48 carat (6.896 g) Jones Diamond by Grover C. Jones and his son, William “Punch” Jones.

GREENBRIER VALLEY

Historic Lewisburg is located just ½ hour to the North with all the charm of a small town and all the amenities of a larger city. Designated the “Coolest Small Town in America”, fine dining, arts and entertainment flourish in the Lewisburg area while “big box” stores like Walmart and Lowes are also available along with the Greenbrier Valley Medical Center and other medical services.

Lewisburg is also home to Carnegie Hall, Greenbrier Valley Theatre, the WV School of Osteopathic Medicine, a community college, and is the county seat for Greenbrier County. The Greenbrier Valley Airport with daily flights to Atlanta and Washington, DC is located just outside of Lewisburg. The world famous Greenbrier Resort is 1 hour drive and Snowshoe Ski Resort is within a 2 hour drive as well.

Within an hour to two hour drive are located some of the finest recreational facilities in West Virginia. Snowshoe Ski Resort, whitewater rafting / fishing on the Greenbrier, New River and Gauley River, 2000 acre Bluestone Lake, 919,000 acre Monongahela National Forest and the 80,000 acre New River National Gorge National Park. Five other area state parks and state forests offer unlimited hiking, horseback riding, ATV riding and rock-climbing opportunities.

BUTTERFLIES

The farm is an exceptional habitat for all butterflies, especially the Monarch. The monarch is highly dependent on the milkweed plant and will always return to areas rich in milkweed to lay their eggs upon the plant. The milkweed they feed on as a caterpillar is actually a poisonous toxin and is stored in their bodies. This is what makes the monarch butterfly taste so terrible to predators.

Of course, other butterflies visit the Preston Farm, including the eastern tiger and spicebush swallowtails, silver-spotted skipper, and a variety of sulphurs and whites.

One other interesting insect to visit the property is the Black Saddlebag Dragonfly, a regular guest of the small farm ponds with all the frogs, salamanders, crawdads and turtles.

FOUNTAIN SPRINGS GOLF COURSE

Fountain Springs Golf Course, located along U. S. Route 219, at 93 Fountain Springs Dr, Peterstown, is an 18 hole Public course. From the back tees, the course plays over 6278 yards with a slope of 120 and rating of 70.4. Fountain Springs was designed by Russell Breeden and opened in 1998

INDIAN CREEK

NATIVE AMERICAN TRAIL – Wonderfully, Indian Creek flows through the area. This graceful blue-line stream flows year-round. Indian Creek takes its name for a Native American trail that crossed the Appalachians from the valley of the Ohio River to that of the Great Valley of Virginia. “It was the interstate of the Indian world”.

30 MILE JOURNEY – Indian Creek is a tributary of the New River and heads up some 4 miles north of the Preston Farm. It is one of Monroe County’s main drainage basins. Indian Creek begins its journey near Salt Sulphur Springs and drains tens of thousands of acres on its winding 30-mile long trip through pastoral farms, steep mountain canyons, wide bottomland forests, wetlands and marshes before ending its trip close to Crumps Bottom, where it enters New River. From there, the New River flows to the Kanawha, onto the Ohio, then the Mississippi and terminating in the Gulf of Mexico. It is said that the waters of Indian Creek will arrive in the Gulf of Mexico 3 to 4 days after entering the New River.

CREEKSIDE WILDLIFE – There are many animals that live year round and at other times in the water and around the edges of Indian Creek, including beavers, otters, minks, raccoons, opossums, blue herons, Canada geese, wood ducks, mallards, king fishers, minnows, native fish, turtles, salamanders, newts, crayfish, muskrats, bull frogs, eagles, owls, hawks and redwing blackbirds.

The miles of “edge effect” benefit all the resident wildlife. In addition to those listed above, white tail deer, black bear, wild turkey, squirrel, rabbit, bobcat, fox, chipmunk, and many species of songbirds make up the resident wildlife population along the creekside.

Of equal importance, there is the insect and microscopic world including butterflies, dragonflies, water skaters, water beetles, damselflies, hellgrammites, tadpoles and various insect larve.

The West Virginia Division of Natural Resources periodically stocks the creek with trout in the Summers County section below the Preston Farm.

INDIAN CREEK COVERED BRIDGE

One of the most photographed in the state, this Monroe County span is located just across the highway from the Preston Farm.  Owned by the county historical society and open to pedestrians, it was part of the White and Salt Sulphur Springs Turnpike.  A Long truss built in 1903 by Ray and Oscar Weikel (ages 16 and 18 years old) and E.P. and A.P. Smith, it is more than 11.5 feet wide and 49.25 feet long.  There are six covered bridges in West Virginia with this truss engineering — Philippi, Hokes Mill, Sarvis Fork, Statts Mill, Center Point and Indian Creek.  The completed bridge cost Monroe County only $400 and was used continuously for about 30 years.

The interior of the Indian Creek Bridge contains notes and plaques from previous visitors.  Now only pedestrians use the bridge, which also houses antique vehicles from the 1900s, adding to the history of this unique structure.

In spring of 2000, the bridge was rehabilitated by Hoke Brothers Construction, Inc. of Union, WV in 2002 at a cost of $334,446.  Renovations included timber roof trusses, a new glue-laminated timber deck, new wooden exterior siding and a new roof of split shakes.

Indian Creek Bridge is a tribute to the ingenuity and hard work of two young builders who had a vision of what transportation could be in Monroe County. ​

​SELF-SUSTAINING LIFE OFF THE GRID

Just like 200 years ago, when the first mountaineers settled the area, the property would be self-sustaining in times of necessity – even without electricity.

  • Fresh water for drinking and cooking would come from springs and drilled water wells (hand drawing water from the wells using a cylinder well bucket).
  • The ponds and forest would provide fresh food (fish, deer, and turkey).
  • The agricultural land’s flat to rolling topography would be used to raise livestock of all kinds (chickens, pigs, cows, sheep, goats, rabbits etc.) and could be farmed with horse drawn equipment. The land would support vegetable gardens, berry patches, fruit orchards, and row crops of corn, oats and barley.
  • Beehives would provide honey and beeswax for candles.
  • The forest would provide firewood for heating and cooking, lumber for building, basket splints, maple syrup and pounds of nuts (walnuts, beechnuts and hickory nuts).

GEOLOGY

The Preston Farm is nestled between the folded Ridge and Valley Province to the east and the younger Allegheny Plateau to the west.  The Greenbrier River flows 162 miles southwest and empties into the world’s third oldest river, the New River.

The area exhibits a karst topography due to the underlying Greenbrier Limestone. Karst is characterized by numerous caves, sinkholes, fissures, and underground streams. This interesting topography forms in regions of plentiful rainfall where bedrock consists of carbonate-rich rock, such as limestone, gypsum, or dolomite, that is easily dissolved. Mildly acidic rainwater slowly dissolves the soft limestone over millions of years creating geological fascinations like Lost World Caverns and Organ Cave, carved from the Greenbrier Limestone.

The farm has many interesting “riches from the earth” in the form of limestone, agates, fossils, geodes, and curious rock outcrops.

The rich farmland is made fertile by the Greenbrier Limestones, known locally as the “Big Lime”. These limestones were formed from shallow seas some 350 million years ago during the Mississippian geological period. The quarrying of limestone for dimension stone, fill-rock, construction aggregate, riprap, sand, and agricultural lime is an important industry in the area.

Just 30 miles north of the farm you can take a trip through time riding on I-64 from Dawson to the WV/VA boundary showcasing outcrops from the younger Mississippian formations to the older Devonian mountains.

The rich coal fields lying 40 miles to the northwest were formed about 300 million years ago during the Pennsylvanian and Permian periods when the West Virginia area was south of the equator and moving north. Coal, a combustible sedimentary rock, formed when our area was covered with huge, tropical, swampy forests where plants – giant ferns, reeds and mosses – grew. When the plants died they piled up in swamps. Over time, heat and pressure transformed the buried materials into peat and into various forms of coal. These prehistoric coalfields continue to provide energy and industry to residents of West Virginia, the nation, and the world.

The Droop Sandstone, a very hard, quartz-rich rock originally deposited as sand beaches along an ancient shoreline, is especially prominent in the area. Numerous sheer rock cliff formations are created by the erosion-resistant Droop Sandstone. Locally, the Muddy Creek Mountain quarry produces decorative sandstone from the Droop that is known worldwide for its beauty and durability.

SALT SULPHUR SPRINGS

Salt Sulphur Springs is located just a few miles south of the property and is a popular wedding venue and is the scene of select community advents.

The area is well known for the healing waters of the numerous “Sulphur Springs”. During the 1800’s and early 1900’s, several “Sulphur Springs Resorts” flourished in the area. Most notably and still in existence are White Sulphur Springs, Warm Springs and, Hot Springs. Others included, Sweet Springs, Blue Sulphur Springs, Red Sulphur Springs, Green Sulphur Springs, Pence Springs and, Sweet Chalybeate Springs.

During the height of wealthy families’ summer treks to the Virginia springs resorts—from roughly 1800 until the Civil War—one popular circuit encompassed “the fountains most strongly impregnated with minerals, heat, fashion, and fame,” according to one chronicler. For those arriving from eastern Virginia and points northeast, the circuit started at Warm Springs northeast of Lewisburg, in the Allegheny Mountains. From there, it ran south and west to the Hot, the White Sulphur, the Sweet, the Salt Sulphur, and the Red Sulphur, then back in the opposite direction.

The “Old Salt” was famed for its three springs: sweet, salt sulphur, and iodine, curative especially for “chronic diseases of the brain” such as headaches.

The main hotel building dates to about 1820. Salt Sulphur Springs Historic District holds one of the largest groupings of pre-Civil War native stone buildings in West Virginia

RED SULPHUR SPRINGS

Red Sulphur Springs, located just a few miles south of the Preston Farm, was once was the site of another popular mineral spring resort from the 1820s until World War I. The spring water emerges from the ground at 54 degrees F. and leaves a purplish-red sulfurous deposit which was used to treat skin conditions. The water was believed to be useful in the treatment of tuberculosis. Modern analysis shows the water to be high in bicarbonate, sulfate, and calcium.   Around 1920, the buildings were dismantled, and the resort ceased operation.

ARCHEOLOGY

The long stretches of bottomland along Indian Creek well known to be rich in Native American artifacts.

Native American Indians who lived in the River Valleys of the Ohio, Kanawha, Greenbrier and Roanoke, as well as northern Georgia, upper SC and Tennessee where part of the Archaic Period culture. This culture lasted from about 10,000 to 3,000 BP (before present day).

Native American artifact collectors search for, and have found, arrowheads, spear points, tomahawks, tools and toys (marbles). Most of the artifacts would be from the Archaic period and  can be readily found on any flat areas on the creek that would be one foot higher than the creek’s bank.

The American Native Indians who lived in what is now West Virginia led a Stone Age lifestyle – they only had stone tools and weapons, had never seen a horse and had no knowledge of the wheel.

There are many famous Native American tribes who played a part in the history of the state and whose tribal territories and homelands are located in West Virginia. The names of the tribes included the Cherokee, Iroquois, Manahoac, Meherrin, Monacan, Nottaway, Occaneechi, Saponi and Shawnee.

Other famous Tribes of Eastern Woodlands: Miami, Lenape, Iroquois, Massachusett,  Powhatan, Abenaki, Shawnee and Pequot, Fox, Sauk, Wampanoag, Delaware, Huron (Wyandot), Mohawk, Mohican and Menominee

The way of life and history of West Virginia Indians was dictated by the natural raw materials available to them.

  • Way of Life (Lifestyle): Hunter-gatherers, farmers, fishers, trappers
  • Types of housing, homes or shelters: Wigwams (aka Birchbark houses)
  • Crops: Corn (maize), pumpkin, squash, beans and tobacco
  • Trees: Poplars, birches, elms, maples, oaks, pines, fir trees and spruce trees.
  • Transport: Birchbark canoes
  • Clothing: Little clothing in the summer, animal skins (Buckskin) in winter
  • Languages: Iroquoian and Algonquian

History Timeline of the Native Indians of West Virginia

10,000 BC: Paleo-Indian Era (Stone Age culture) the earliest human inhabitants of America who lived in caves and were Nomadic hunters of large game including the Great Mammoth and giant bison.

7000 BC: Archaic Period in which people built basic shelters and made stone weapons and stone tools

1000 AD: Woodland Period – homes were established along rivers and trade exchange systems and burial systems were established

1500’s AD: First contact with Europeans – The history and the way of life of West Virginia Indians was profoundly affected by newcomers to the area. The indigenous people had occupied the land thousands of years before the first European explorers arrived. The Europeans brought with them new ideas, customs, religions, weapons, transport (the horse and the wheel), livestock (cattle and sheep) and disease which profoundly affected the history of the Native Indians.

PUBLIC SCHOOLS

Monroe County School District

Public Elementary School:
Mountain View Elementary School

Public Middle School:
Mountain View Middle School

Public High School:
James Monroe High School

REGIONAL INFORMATION

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304.645.7674